Anxiety about the quality of open access journals hinders the further spread of open access publications. This conclusion was cited many times during the recent Co-ordinating workshop on Open Access to Scientific Information, in Brussels on May 4 this year. The workshop was attended by about 70 key players in Open Access and was organized by two EU directorates: Research and Information Society & Media.
The critical role of quality control came to the fore in various ways.
Salvatore Mele (CERN), coordinator of the SOAP project presented the results of their study (based on a Web survey) of the attitudes prevailing among researchers with respect to open access. They reveal a remarkable gap between strong support for open access on the one hand and a lack of actual open access publishing on the other hand. 89 % of the researchers say they are in favour of open access publishing. At the same time, only between 8 and 10 % of the articles published are open access. According to the SOAP study, two factors are mainly responsible for this gap: the problem of financing open access publications and the perceived lack of quality of many open access journals. The Journal Impact Factor of journals was also mentioned as a reason not to publish in existing open access journals.
The weight of these factors does vary by field. For example, in chemistry 60 % of the researchers mention financial reasons as barrier to open access, whereas only 16 % of the astronomers see finance as problematic. In astronomy, worries about the quality of journals are mentioned most (by more than half of the astronomers) whereas this is only seen as a problem by about one-fifth of the chemists. This result points, by the way, to the need to develop specific open access policies for different scientific and scholarly fields. For example, in the humanities open access books will be an important issue.
Quality of the journals was also central in a new initiative made public at the workshop by the delegation of the ICT organization of the Dutch universities SURF: Clearing the Gate. This initiative is aimed at funding organizations such as the Dutch research council NWO. It calls upon them to develop a preference for open access publications for the research they fund. They should give priority to publications in high quality open access journals as a condition for funding. SURF is convinced that once this priority is installed, we will witness a strong growth in the number of available open access journals of a high to very high quality. The presentative of NWO joined this initiative and made clear that his organization already supports new open access journals in the social sciences and humanities. This Spring, NWO will publish a Call aimed at the other disciplines. NWO also supports the OAPEN initiative for open access books in the humanities. An important motivation for the organization is financial: “we do not want to pay twice for the same research”.
For evaluators and scientometricians, this development is an interesting challenge as well. How to evaluate open access activities in research?
My Dutch language report of the EU Open Access workshop meeting was published in the journal Onderzoek Nederland, nr. 277, 7 May 2011, p. 8.
My presentation at the EU workshop is available here.