Journal ranking biased against interdisciplinary research

The widespread use of rankings of journals in research
institutes and universities creates a disadvantage for interdisciplinary
research in assessment exercises such as the British Research Excellence
. This is the conclusion of a paper presented at the 2011 Annual
Conference of the Society for the Social Studies of Science
in Cleveland (US) by
Ismael Rafols (SPRU, Sussex University), Loet Leydesdorff (University of
Amsterdam) and Alice O’Hare, Paul Nightingale and Andy Stirling (all SPRU,
Sussex University). The study is the first quantitative proof that researchers
working at the boundaries between different research fields may be
disadvantaged compared with monodisciplinary colleagues. The study argues that
citation analysis, if properly applied, is a better measurement instrument than
a ranked journal list.


The study is quite relevant for research management at
universities and research institutes. Journal lists have become a very popular
management tool. In a lot of departments, researchers are obliged to publish in
a limited set of journals. Some departments, for example in economics, have
even been reorganized on the basis of having published in such a list. The way
these lists have been composed does vary. Sometimes a group of experts decides
whether a journal belongs to the list, sometimes the Journal Impact Factor
published by ISI/Thomson Reuters is the determining factor.


The study by Rafols et al. has analyzed one such list: the
ranked journal list used by the British Association of Business Schools. This
list is based on a mix of citation statistics and peer review. It ranks
scholarly journals in business and management studies in five categories.
“Modest standard journals” are category 1, “world elite journals” are category
4*. This scheme reflects the experience researchers have with the Research
Assessment Exercise categories. The ranked journal list is meant to be used
widely for a variety of management goals. It is used as an advice for
researchers about the best venue for their manuscripts. Libraries are supposed
to use it in their acquisition policies. And last but not least, it is used in
research assessments and personnel evaluations. Although the actual use of the
list is an interesting research topic in itself, we can safely assume that it
has had a serious impact on the researchers in the British business schools


The study shows first of all that the position of a journal
in the ranked list correlates negatively with the extent of interdisciplinarity
of the journal. In other words, the higher the ranking, the more narrow its
disciplinary focus. (The study has used a number of indicators for
interdisciplinarity by which different aspects of what it means to be
interdisciplinary have been captured.) Rewarding researchers to publish first
of all in the ranked journal list may therefore discourage interdisciplinary


The study confirms this effect by comparing business and
management studies to innovation studies. Both fields are subjected to the same
evaluation regime in the Research Excellence Framework. Intellectually, they
are very close. However, they differ markedly with respect to their
interdisciplinary nature. Researchers in business schools have a more
traditional publishing behaviour than their innovation studies colleagues. The
research units in innnovation studies are consistently more interdisciplinary
than the business and management schools.


Of course, publication behaviour is shaped by a variety of
influences. Peer review may be biased against interdisciplinary work because it
is more difficult to assess its quality. Many top journals are not eager to
publish interdisciplinary work. This study is the first to show convincingly
that these already existing biases tend to be made even stronger by the use of
ranked journal lists as a tool in research management. The study confirms this
effect by comparing the performance based on the ranked journal list with a
citation analysis. In the latter, the innovation studies research is not
punished by its more interdisciplinary character which does happen in an
assessment on the basis of the journal list. The paper concludes with a
discussion of the negative implications in terms of funding and acquiring
resources for research groups working at the boundaries of different fields.


The paper will be published in a forthcoming issue of Research Policy and has been awarded the best paper at the Atlanta Conference on Science and Innovation Policy in September 2011.


Reference: Ismael Rafols, Loet Leydesdorff,
Alice O’Hare, Paul Nightingale, & Andy Stirling, “How journal rankings can
suppress interdisciplinary research. A comparison between innovation studies
and business & management,” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S), Cleveland, OH, Nov. 2011;
available at